Samuels was born in 2327 in Bergen, Norway on Earth. He moved to the Federation colony on Volan II in 2350, where he was a farmer. He married a woman named Louise and had two daughters, born in 2356 and 2358.
Samuels joined the Maquis in order to defend his home from Cardassian encroachment, refusing to abandon the colony after the Federation handed the planet over to the Cardassians in the Federation-Cardassian Treaty of 2370. Disguised as a Starfleet crewman, he planted a protomatter implosion device on the Cardassian freighter Bok'Nor, which was smuggling weapons into the Demilitarized Zone. Following this act, Samuels met with fellow member Sakonna who arranged for quarters for him. He was then captured by Cardassian Peliar Zel agents on Deep Space 9 and interrogated by Gul Evek. Samuels made a full confession during the interrogation, presumably under duress, and later "committed suicide" in his cell. (DS9: "The Maquis, Part I")