New Vulcan was an alternate reality Vulcan colony founded by Spock Prime (the original timeline's version of Spock) as a home for the estimated 10,000 survivors of the destruction of Vulcan, perpetrated by Nero in 2258.
The Spock of this timeline thought that, logically, he should resign his commission in Starfleet to help restore Vulcan civilization, but his "older self" urged him to remain, so as not to be denied the potential accomplishments made with his friendships with the crew of the USS Enterprise, specifically James T. Kirk. (Star Trek)
Within a year, New Vulcan had become the capital of the Confederacy of Surak. In 2259, the Enterprise contacted this planet, where Spock Prime revealed the true nature of Khan Noonien Singh to the crew. (Star Trek Into Darkness)