Vital signs, also known as biometric data or biodata, was a term that referred to measurable medical indicators of one's health status. These could include, but were not limited to, pulse, respiration, circulation, blood pressure, body temperature, and brain activity.
In 2153, the Arctic Archaeology Team collected biometric data of two Borg drones including respiration, pulse, cell rate, and the results of an EEG. This data was submitted to Starfleet Command and sent aboard Enterprise NX-01 shortly before the team was assimilated. Malcolm Reed was unable to make "heads or tails of it" while studying the data. (ENT: "Regeneration")
Shortly after arriving aboard the USS Enterprise in 2266, Dr. McCoy put Charles Evans through a test on an exercise table in sickbay. Evans' vital signs were displayed on a body function panel above the table during the test. (TOS: "Charlie X")