Valedictorian was the title given to the highest graduate from a school.
In high school, Jean-Luc Picard had many honors bestowed upon him, including president of the school, valedictorian, and athletic hero. These feats, in part, lead his elder brother Robert to grow intensely jealous of Jean-Luc. (TNG: "Family")
In 2368, Elizabeth Lense became valedictorian of her graduating class from the Starfleet Medical Academy. Julian Bashir was salutatorian; however, he claims that he would have made valedictorian had he not mistaken a preganglionic fiber for a postganglionic nerve during his oral exams. (DS9: "Q-Less", "Explorers") During an extended hallucination Bashir experienced following a telepathic attack by the Lethean Altovar in 2371, Bashir admitted purposefully making the mistake that cost him the valedictorian title. (DS9: "Distant Voices")