A tracking station was a facility which was able to detect or track something, such as a person or a starship.

In 2153, Earth tracking station spotted the transport Arctic One leaving Earth orbit at warp 3.9. (ENT: "Regeneration")

In 2366, the tracking station of the Angosian penal colony Lunar V was damaged by the prisoner Roga Danar, who escaped in an Angosian police shuttle from the moon. (TNG: "The Hunted")

In 2379, an unknown source accessed information aboard the USS Enterprise-E. It was unclear what information were accessed but it was mostly basic stellar cartography, star charts, communications protocols, uplinks from colony tracking stations, and even not restricted material. (Star Trek Nemesis)