The waste export industry was a powerful and profitable Malon business responsible for the disposal of industrial byproducts such as antimatter waste. Though many in the industry took pains to find isolated, uninhabited regions to dump the radioactive waste, others were not so scrupulous.
The workers aboard Malon export vessels were exposed to theta radiation that caused severe health consequences. They endured it because they were well-paid, and they believed they were performing a necessary service. Core laborers, who received the highest radiation doses, were paid more for two months' work than most Malon made in a lifetime. (VOY: "Juggernaut")
In 2375, Captain Kathryn Janeway offered Controller Emck Federation technology that would allow the Malon to reclaim their antimatter waste. Despite the benefits such technology would bring to the Malon, Emck rejected the offer as it would render the waste export industry obsolete. Voyager eventually transmitted the technical specifications to the Malon after dealing with Emck. (VOY: "Night")