(covers information from several alternate timelines)
The crime of theft was the taking of another individual's property without permission. This was different than robbery in that no force was used against the owners of the property. An individual who engages in this activity is known as a thief. The term looting was used to describe acts of theft that accompanied civil unrest.
In 2263 of the alternate reality, the leader of the Teenaxi Delegation claimed to Captain James T. Kirk that a piece of the Abronath had been stolen by the Fibonans before it had been gifted to the Teenaxi. (Star Trek Beyond)
Captain James T. Kirk and his crew were charged with theft after commandeering the USS Enterprise in order to retrieve Captain Spock from the Genesis Planet in 2286. The charge was eventually dismissed by the President of the Federation. (Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home)
Berlinghoff Rasmussen committed numerous thefts of small objects on the USS Enterprise-D in 2368. The stolen objects included a tricorder and a phaser. His intention was to return to 22nd century New Jersey in a time travel pod he had stolen, and to then claim to have invented the items, in order to make a profit. His plans were thwarted by the Enterprise crew. Odo later recounted these events to Worf, as an example of a security breach under his tenure as security chief. (TNG: "A Matter of Time"; DS9: "Bar Association")
Odo often suspected Quark of acts of theft on Deep Space 9. He once told Quark that he would miss his "aggravation, the petty theft, the bad manners," while Deep Space 9 was being evacuated in 2370. (DS9: "The Siege")