The temporal lobes were lateral parts of the brain.
When Doctor Julian Bashir ran a full neurosynaptic comparison of the brains of Jadzia Dax and Miles O'Brien in 2369, he found the same pattern, the aphasia virus, in their temporal lobes. (DS9: "Babel")
In 2370, Beverly Crusher scanned Jean-Luc Picard's temporal lobe twice within a short space of time and detected a 13% increase in the acetylcholine of his hippocampus. This showed Picard had accumulated over two days' worth of memories in minutes. (TNG: "All Good Things...")