Surgical gloves were protective hand coverings used by medical staff to decrease the likelihood of cross-contamination and infection during medical procedures. They were sometimes accompanied by transparent sleeves that extended from the arm to the elbow.
Some time after that, they were replaced by more advanced quarantine fields. In 2368, Berlinghoff Rasmussen mentioned that he and a colleague had visited a 22nd century ship. Beverly Crusher replied that he likely saw surgical masks and gloves. (TNG: "A Matter of Time")