The Statutes of Alpha III was a historical legal document from Alpha III history. Laws pertaining to the Human rights of the accused were enumerated in this document.
It was one of multiple legal authorities cited by Attorney-at-Law Samuel T. Cogley at Captain Kirk's general court martial in 2267. (TOS: "Court Martial")
According to Star Trek Maps (p. 22), the Statutes of Alpha III was loosely based on Plato's Republic, as a legal document to establish an independent star system.