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A Starfleet transport was a type of starship used by Starfleet to transport personnel. These transports were utilized as Federation troop convoys during the Dominion War.

In 2374, the USS Defiant was ordered to escort several troop ships, carrying over 30,000 troops, out of the Badlands safely, in case of attack from the Jem'Hadar. (DS9: "Waltz")

In early 2375, a Starfleet transport carrying mainly Vulcan wounded requested permission to dock at a Romulan hospital on Derna, but was turned away. (DS9: "Image in the Sand")

It seems that these transports were capable of entering a planet's atmosphere.
The remote controlled model spaceship was described in the final draft script of ENT: "Broken Bow" as a model of an early 22nd century Starfleet transport.