Special dispensation was a legal concept in which an action which was not normally sanctioned by the courts could be allowed due to extenuating circumstances.
Klingon law granted special dispensation to the female heir of a Great House to become the head of the family if the only possible male heir had died in an accident. Grilka faced this situation in 2371 when her husband Kozak died in Quark's bar. (DS9: "The House of Quark")
In 2375, the Chief of Starfleet Operations granted Captain Benjamin Sisko special dispensation to change the name of the USS Sao Paulo to the USS Defiant (NX-74205). (DS9: "The Dogs of War")