(covers information from several alternate timelines)
The science station was a console located on the bridge of Starfleet and other starships. The station was designed to monitor scientific activity aboard the ship, (TOS: "The Man Trap", "Charlie X", "Obsession", "Is There in Truth No Beauty?", "Day of the Dove") and was manned by a science officer.
Science stations were routinely outfitted with a blue-colored scope until at least the 2260s. (TOS: "Where No Man Has Gone Before", "The Corbomite Maneuver", "The Omega Glory", "The Ultimate Computer"; TAS: "Beyond the Farthest Star"; Star Trek: The Motion Picture) The scopes were phased out by the 24th century. Counselor Deanna Troi found the the scope interesting when she and Commander William T. Riker visited a holodeck recreation of the Enterprise NX-01 bridge in 2370. (ENT: "These Are the Voyages...")
In 2369, Captain Edward Jellico ordered that the science stations on the Enterprise bridge be reconfigured for damage control and weapons status monitoring in preparation for possible conflict with the Cardassian Union. (TNG: "Chain of Command, Part I")
On original Constitution-class starships, the science station was located on the starboard side of the ship, two stations to the left of the turbolift alcove. The science station was normally occupied by the science officer, which was a senior staff position. This station had more elaborate control surfaces than other bridge stations.
Upon the refit of the Constitution-class in the 2270s, the science station was now directly behind the captain, between the two turbolifts. Unlike the other bridge stations, the science station had a pullout console on both sides of the station. (Star Trek: The Motion Picture)
By the 2280s, the science station had been moved back to a position similar to the original Constitution class, on the starboard side of the bridge next to the turbolift. (Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan; Star Trek III: The Search for Spock)
Newer Constitution-class ships refit with touch-panel displays had much larger science stations with an updated graphic interface. It was in the same starboard position, but the turbolift had been moved ahead of the station. (Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country)
On Galaxy-class starships, there were still two science stations on the bridge. They were the first two aft stations behind the tactical station and next to the door leading to the observation lounge, labeled Science I and Science II. No regular officer was assigned to these consoles as the science officer duties were now typically handled by the operations officer. (TNG: "Lonely Among Us", "The Child", "Evolution")
A refit of the Galaxy-class bridge was first seen in 2371. Three new science stations were installed along the starboard side of the bridge to the first officer's right. They were labeled Science I, Science II, and Science III. A fourth station, Science IV, was located at Science I's old position. Science I now had a short extension console which faced the main viewscreen. (Star Trek Generations)
The Intrepid-class had one small science station on the port side of the bridge, just ahead of the door leading to the briefing room. (VOY: "Elogium", "Macrocosm", "Fury", "The Haunting of Deck Twelve") A portion of the console extended out from the wall and faced the main viewscreen.
The Sovereign-class had two science stations on the starboard side of the bridge, on a platform between the door to the captain's ready room and the starboard turbolift. Like on the Galaxy and Intrepid-classes, the first science station had a panel which faced the viewscreen.
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