The Saturn V was an American human-rated expendable rocket that was in service with NASA in the mid-to-late 20th century. This rocket was used for the Apollo and Skylab programs.
In 1968, a Saturn V rocket secretly containing a sub-orbital warhead was launched from the McKinley Rocket Base on April 4th. It suffered a serious malfunction, went off course and exploded. The true details regarding this mishap at the time was "never generally revealed." (TOS: "Assignment: Earth")
Images of the missile in space shown on the Beta 5 computer screen was taken from film shot during the Apollo 4 interstage separation sequence.
Around the same time, the mission insignia for Apollo 9 included the Saturn, with the words USA on its hull, in its design. (ENT: "First Flight")
After Jonathan Archer restored a damaged timeline in 2154, a Saturn V rocket could be seen in the time stream as the timeline realigned itself. (ENT: "Storm Front, Part II")
In an alternate reality 2255, a model of a Saturn V could be seen in the Shipyard Bar in Iowa. In addition, a picture of the rocket was amongst the many pictures displayed in the corridor leading to the main bar space. (Star Trek)
An image depicting the launch of a Saturn V was contained in the library computer aboard the USS Enterprise in 2254. (TOS: "The Cage" remastered)