The Rukani were a people included in the holographic program Insurrection Alpha.

In the scenario, upon entering the Rukani sector, Captain Janeway and Lieutenant Paris were taking a shuttle for a 24-hour visit with the Rukani. Although a seemingly friendly species, Chakotay suggested that perhaps she should take Tuvok along in case they turn out to not be as friendly as they appeared. This was, however, Chakotay's attempt to get Tuvok off the USS Voyager.

After Seska's variation of the program took over the holodeck, Janeway reprogrammed a Rukani vessel to attack Voyager. Seska, who was not prepared for this change in the scenario, was surprised when Paris explained to her that he and Janeway had contacted the Rukani for assistance once they discovered word of the mutiny. (VOY: "Worst Case Scenario")

It is unclear if the Rukani really existed, but if they did, the setting of the holoprogram would seem to suggest that they inhabited the area of space explored by Voyager in 2371.