(covers information from several alternate timelines)
Romulus was the inhabited second planet of the Romulan system in Sector Z-6. This planet was the homeworld of the Romulans and the capital world of the Romulan Star Empire. Romulus, and subsequently most of its population, were destroyed when its orbiting star went supernova in 2387 and was consumed in the subsequent blast wave.
The Romulus System Edit
During the Neutral Zone Incursion of 2266, the location of the Romulan system was labeled on a map of Sector Z-6 that was displayed on the bridge viewscreen of the USS Enterprise. (TOS: "Balance of Terror", production art)
In 2293, the location of Romulus in the Milky Way Galaxy was labeled in a star chart that was in Captain James T. Kirk's quarters aboard the USS Enterprise-A. (Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, okudagram)
In 2374, the location of Romulus vis-à-vis the Cardassian-Romulan border was shown on a graphic display in a holo-simulation. According to the simulation, Dominion and Cardassian forces would reach the planet within one day of crossing the border via the Glintara sector. (DS9: "In the Pale Moonlight")
- See also: Romulan history
Romulus was an uninhabited world and was suitable for colonization by humanoid lifeforms. In the 4th century, a group of Vulcans left their homeworld Vulcan and settled the planets Calder II, Dessica II, Draken IV, Yadalla Prime, and Barradas III. This civilization, called the Debrune, was regarded as a predecessor of the Romulan Star Empire. After their odyssey, which lasted for centuries, the Vulcans finally reached Romulus, a planet that matched all their needs and seemed as a perfect place to begin a new civilization. (TNG: "Gambit, Part I", "Gambit, Part II")
During his time as an Obsidian Order operative, Elim Garak worked at the Cardassian embassy on Romulus as a gardener. He claimed the dominant color there to be grey. (DS9: "Broken Link", "Inter Arma Enim Silent Leges")
In Grathon Tolar's forged holoprogram, a hologram of Weyoun stated that the Founders believed that they would be on Romulus in less than three weeks after a Dominion invasion. (DS9: "In the Pale Moonlight")
During the Dominion War, injured Romulan soldiers were taken to Romulus for treatment, until Senator Kimara Cretak successfully persuaded the Bajorans to let them establish a hospital on Derna. (DS9: "Image in the Sand")
In 2387, a star close to Romulus went supernova, endangering the entire galaxy. Ambassador Spock created a red matter singularity which consumed the star, but not before the supernova reached Romulus, destroying the planet. (Star Trek)
In an alternate future (c. 2395) experienced by Jean-Luc Picard in 2370, Romulus and the Romulan Empire had been conquered by the Klingons. Romulus was cut off from the Federation, except for the occasional medical ships allowed through to help stop an outbreak of Tarellian plague. (TNG: "All Good Things...")
Romulus and Remus were the major worlds of the Romulan Star Empire.
Cities and towns:
In Roman mythology, Romulus and his brother Remus were known as the brothers who founded the city of Rome. Romulus became the first king after killing his brother. The relation between the planets of Romulus and Remus reflect this. See Romulus and Remus.
In virtually all reference works, Romulus and the the Romulan Star Empire had been depicted or stated to be located in the Beta Quadrant. These books included such works as Star Trek: Deep Space Nine Technical Manual (p. 2), Star Trek: The Next Generation Technical Journal (p. 9), Star Trek: The Next Generation Writers' Technical Manual (p. 20), Star Trek: Voyager Technical Manual (p. 27) Star Trek: Star Charts (pp. 45, 55, 56, etc.), and Stellar Cartography: The Starfleet Reference Library ("Beta Quadrant: Local Space Extract" & "Federation Historical Highlights, 2161-2385"). Even reference works that date back to a time before the Alpha and Beta Quadrant distinction was invented depicted the Romulans in the area that would later on be classified as the Beta Quadrant. These included such works as the Star Trek Star Fleet Technical Manual (T0:02:07:00) and Star Trek Maps (Chart A). Only one of these graphics made a brief on screen appearance as an illegible display graphic on a PADD in Star Trek: Insurrection.   The information on the PADD, though, was completely illegible on screen.  The script of 2009's Star Trek also referred to Romulus as being in the Beta Quadrant, though in a line of dialogue which is not in the final edit of that film.  On screen, in several episodes Romulans have been mentioned to have a presence in the Alpha Quadrant as well. According to Star Trek Encyclopedia (3rd ed., pp. 43, 393) the Empire did indeed also include space in the Alpha Quadrant. In DS9: "In the Pale Moonlight", it was shown that Romulus was only one day away from the Cardassian-Romulan border. This, along with numerous other DS9 references, would place Romulus and the Empire clearly within the Alpha Quadrant, and renders the aforementioned reference works inaccurate, since none of them show the Cardassian Union and Romulan Empire with a mutual border.
Production designer Herman Zimmerman commented in Star Trek: The Magazine about his work during Star Trek Nemesis: "The Romulans have possessed advanced technology a lot longer than the Federation, so the look was a combination of art deco and medievalism meets high tech. Most of the designs were inspired by Italian designer Carlo Scarpa."
Regarding exterior design of the Senate area, designer Syd Dutton said director "Stuart Baird wanted us to think about Albert Speer, the architect who did all the conceptual drawings for Hitler. Speer took that national socialist idea to a ridiculous extreme where everything was huge and classical." "The Romulans are a people who live in a marshy area. They had little houses on stilts around mudwork. The mudwork became part of this central core and that was where the old part of the city – the Forum and Senate buildings – was located. As the city expanded going away from that, the buildings became bigger and more technological."
According to Star Trek Maps (chart D), the two moons of Romulus were called Megara and Amyclae.
According to Star Trek: Star Charts (pp. 55 & 66), Romulus was located in the Romulus system. The official name of this M-class planet was Romulus, and this world was the capital of the Romulan Star Empire. The planetary capital was named Romulus. The dominant species were the humanoid Romulans. In 2378, the population of this world was estimated to be 18.0 billion. The ancestral homeworld of the colonists, Vulcan, was warp-capable in 320 AD. Approximately fifty years later, these ancestors left Vulcan at the time of the Great Awakening. This planet was located in the Romulan War Theater of Operations (2156-2160).
According to the Stellar Cartography: The Starfleet Reference Library (p. 34), the Romulans, who referred to themselves as Rihannsu, called their homeworld ch'Rihan. In their ancient language, which was a derivative of High Vulcan, they called the planet Rom A'losh ("Raptor's Nest").
In some Star Trek novels, Romulus was called ch'Rihan and Remus was ch'Havran, and the Romulans were the Rihannsu (all of which being their names in the Romulan language). Remus was said to be the more temperate of the two planets. Also, Romulus was said to have at least four moons.
The comic book series Star Trek: Countdown, a tie-in to the 2009 Star Trek film, gave further detail about the destruction of Romulus. The supernova which destroyed the planet was identified as being in the Hobus system; Nero and his crew were mining in that system at the time of the star's first eruption. Prior to the destruction of Romulus, Spock attempted to warn the Romulan Senate that the supernova posed a threat to both the planet and the entire Romulan Star Empire, but was rebuffed.
In the video game Star Trek Online, the supernova that destroyed Romulus was intentionally caused by a faction of Romulans following the orders of the Iconians. The game's backstory, which included the Countdown comics, also explained the physical impossibility of a star in another system destroying Romulus with no possible evacuation time by stating that the supernova's shockwave propagated through subspace at faster-than-light speeds (implied in game to be the result of the manner by which the nova was induced).