(covers information from several alternate timelines)
The crime of robbery was the use of force to take another individual's or organization's property. This was different from simple theft, which did not involve force. It was commonly associated with financial institutions, such as the Bank of Bolias.
In the alternate reality in the year 2259, Doctor McCoy told Captain Kirk that "You don't rob a bank when the getaway car has a flat tire," referring to his plan to infiltrate Qo'noS when the USS Enterprise's warp core had broken down. (Star Trek Into Darkness)
Worf was a victim of robbery in 2372 when he found his property, including his tooth sharpener, on an individual he discovered moving through the access tunnels of Deep Space 9. That person acquired it by breaking into his quarters. That act spurned Worf to begin living on the more secure USS Defiant. (DS9: "Bar Association")
In 2365, a hologram within a Sherlock Holmes program attempted to commit robbery against Jean-Luc Picard and Data by using a knife to coerce money from Picard. Data easily subdued the character. (TNG: "Elementary, Dear Data")
In 2369, Rom shouted at Odo that it was not true that Quark made up the robbery after the incident between Croden and the two Miradorn Ah-Kel and Ro-Kel in holosuite one, speaking out loud what the Constable thought. (DS9: "Vortex")