A quantum filament is an astrophysical phenomenon which can be very hazardous to space vehicles. Quantum filaments can be hundreds of meters long, but have almost no mass, making them extremely difficult to detect.
In 2368, the starship Enterprise collided with two quantum filaments, causing major damage to the ship. The Enterprise computer registered a hull breach, and main power failed. In addition, the quantum resonance of the filament caused a polarity shift in the ship's antimatter containment fields, leading to a progressive degeneration in the fields, threatening the ship. Eventually, the crew was able to restore power and stabilize the containment fields. (TNG: "Disaster")