A particle beam is a general term for a stream of particles, which can be configured for various purposes.
In 2365, when discussing options on how to rescue Doctor Katherine Pulaski from Professor Moriarty, one of the options considered was to generate a particle beam based on wave guides. This beam would be fired from the matter-antimatter chamber and routed into a power conduit into the holodeck. If the beam had reached a sufficient velocity, it would be capable of erasing the holographic constructs. However, the beam, at that velocity, was capable of tearing apart Human flesh. (TNG: "Elementary, Dear Data")
In 2368, the USS Enterprise-D used a particle beam created by the deflector dish to prevent an asteroid, that had a core composed of densely compressed nitrium and chrondite, from impacting into the atmosphere of Tessen III. When implemented, the particle beam produced a disruptive nuclear effect in the core, causing it to explode. Later, a similar beam, reconfigured to contain nitrium, was used to encourage several nitrium parasites to leave the hull of the ship and return to the Pelloris field. (TNG: "Cost of Living")
In early 2370, a highly energetic particle beam was created by reconfiguring the tractor beam emitters of the USS Enterprise-D, and firing into the surface of a star where the vessel had hidden from a rogue Borg ship. The beam produced a superfluid gas eruption that induced a solar flare, which engulfed and destroyed the Borg craft. (TNG: "Descent, Part II")
Later that year, Ro Laren fired a low-intensity particle beam from her Maquis raider into the Hugora nebula, where a Federation task force was hiding. The polarizing effect created by the particle beam revealed the task force to Maquis, enabling them to elude capture. (TNG: "Preemptive Strike")
In 2373, the Maquis rigged a Cardassian freighter with a focused particle beam that punched through the gyro-shielding of the USS Malinche, causing the ship to lose helm control. (DS9: "For the Uniform")
In 2374, B'Elanna Torres fired a particle beam from the shuttlecraft Cochrane in an attempt to disrupt the tractor beam of a Caatati vessel. However, the Caatati sent an antimatter pulse back along the beam, destroying the Cochrane. (VOY: "Day of Honor")