A nova is when a star dramatically increases in brightness over a relatively short period of time.
Sahndara went nova in the 1st millennium BC, wiping out life in its star system save for a handful of Platonian survivors. (TOS: "Plato's Stepchildren")
Kataan's sun went nova in the 14th century, destroying all life on the planet. The star's brightening was noted by the natives of the planet, who launched a probe to preserve some of their culture. (TNG: "The Inner Light")
Doctor Timicin's attempt to revitalize Beta Praxillus in 2367 ultimately resulted in the star going nova, due to unexpected neutron migration within the stellar core. (TNG: "Half a Life")
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