Neural tissue was the main component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system.
In 2153, the need for neural tissue to transplant into Trip Tucker led to the creation of the mimetic simbiot Sim. (ENT: "Similitude")
In 2371, Nurse Jabara asked Dr. Julian Bashir if she should take neural tissue samples as part of Bareil Antos' autopsy. (DS9: "Life Support")
Soon after, The Doctor replicated new neural tissue for Ptera after removing a cancerous tumor from her brain stem and resuscitating her. (VOY: "Emanations")
Later that year, a holographic Reginald Barclay urged The Doctor to destroy the supposedly holographic USS Voyager and end a malfunctioning holoprogram by saying that the oxidation levels in his neural tissues were rising. (VOY: "Projections")
In 2373, Orum assured Chakotay that other than repairing his neural tissue, there would be no lasting effects of having a Borg neural transceiver attached to his skull (VOY: "Unity")
Soon after, Kes told The Doctor that B'Elanna Torres' neural tissues were starting to degenerate due to oxygen deprivation following a plasma conduit explosion. (VOY: "Favorite Son")
Later, Julian Bashir told Kira Nerys that she was not feeling the effects of neural pathway damage because her neural tissue hadn't yet begun to deteriorate. (DS9: "Children of Time")