(covers information from several alternate timelines)
A neural interface was a technology that allowed a direct connection to be formed between a computer system and an individual's brain. Technologies which utilized neural interfaces included telepresence units, the suspended animation system of Viorsa's species, and multitronic engrammatic interpreters. (ENT: "The Aenar"; VOY: "The Thaw"; DS9: "Extreme Measures")
In 2367, Lieutenant Reginald Barclay created a neural scan interface on the USS Enterprise, in an attempt to prevent the Argus telescope from being overloaded. Using this neural scan interface, Barclay later took the Enterprise to the center of the galaxy, to the Cytherians (TNG: The Nth Degree).
In 2374, a group of Hirogen led by Karr took over the USS Voyager and utilized neural interfaces to link the Voyager crew's neocortexes to the holodeck, essentially making them believe that they were characters within a series of holoprograms which the Hirogen were using as hunting grounds. The Doctor was able to develop a plan whereby he would remodulate one of Seven of Nine's Borg implants to emit a jamming signal to disable the interface. The plan worked, and Seven subsequently engaged the bridge access relays, enabling The Doctor to access the interface controls and disable Captain Janeway's interface. Janeway was subsequently able to destroy the interface controls in Voyager's sickbay, deactivating the remaining interfaces. (VOY: "The Killing Game", "The Killing Game, Part II")
All Borg drones were equipped with neural interfaces with which to communicate with the rest of the Collective. In 2375, Seven of Nine initiated a direct neural interface with One, a drone enhanced with 29th century technology, in order to download him with instructions. One subsequently began probing Seven's neural pathways in an attempt to assimilate all of her knowledge. This posed a threat to Seven, who asked One to stop before he damaged her, a request which One granted. (VOY: "Drone")
The next year, Seven linked her neural interface with a group of three former drones, in an attempt to restore their memories of the events which linked them together into a collective triad. That same year, Mezoti, a young girl whom the Voyager crew had liberated from the Collective, revealed to Seven that Azan, another former drone, was using his neural interface to cheat at kadis-kot, by relaying information to his twin brother, Rebi. In response, Seven ordered them to exercise Punishment Protocol 9-Alpha. (VOY: "Survival Instinct", "Ashes to Ashes")
Also in 2376, the crew of the USS Equinox acquired a "synaptic stimulator," a neural interface which operated by tapping into one's visual cortex and generating images of various alien landscapes inside the user's mind. Captain Ransom would often use the device to experience the Tenkaran coast, a peaceful beach vista. (VOY: "Equinox", "Equinox, Part II")
In an alternate 2392, The Doctor invented a synaptic transceiver, a small implant which allowed a user to pilot a vessel equipped with a neural interface using only their mind. In 2404 of this timeline, Janeway, by this point an admiral, utilized this technology to great effect in her mission to travel back in time to 2378 in her attempt to change history. She later used it to project her image into the Borg Queen's chamber as part of her plot to destroy the Collective. (VOY: "Endgame")