Neo-Transcendentalism was a philosophical movement on Earth in the early 22nd century, founded by Liam Dieghan. Adherents of the philosophy advocated a return to less technological driven lifestyles with an emphasis on self-reliance and nature.

The SS Mariposa, a colony ship launched from Earth in 2123, carried a group of Neo-Transcendentalists who eventually settled on Bringloid V. (TNG: "Up The Long Ladder")

This general philosophy resonates on into the 24th century, with vibrant followers being Alixus and other influential scientists on Earth. (DS9: "Paradise")
Although the episode's writers most likely wanted to refer to Transcendentalism, the form of Neo-Transcendentalism described in "Up The Long Ladder" should not necessarily be confused with the Neo-Transcendentalist movements of the real-world 20th century.