When Samuels was eighteen years old, his father died in a freighter accident. Feeling anger and resentment towards the pilot, who was Denobulan, Samuels joined the extremist xenophobic group Terra Prime, although he later left and distanced himself from the organisation later in life.
Coalition of Planets
In 2155, Samuels presided over discussions in San Francisco between delegates from several planets regarding membership within a proposed "Coalition of Planets." Samuels' desire to create an alliance of worlds stemmed from the Xindi attack of 2153, wherein seven million Humans were killed. Samuels believed, following the attack, that Earth's survival depended upon creating alliances with other worlds. He built upon the foundation that Captain Jonathan Archer had built, when he successfully fostered cooperation between Vulcans, Andorians, and Tellarites, species who had historically been at odds with each other.
While investigating the death of Susan Khouri, a nurse who had been working for Terra Prime, Archer approached Samuels and requested all of the information which the Starfleet investigators had acquired on the case. Samuels initially refused, until Archer confronted Samuels with his knowledge that Samuels himself had once been a member of the group. Realizing that he had underestimated Archer, he agreed to provide Archer with the case file. (ENT: "Demons")
Later, when Terra Prime's leader John Frederick Paxton hijacked the verteron array on Mars, threatening to destroy Starfleet Command if all non-humans did not leave the solar system, Samuels informed Archer that the United Earth Council had ordered that the array be destroyed. Archer objected, noting that, if the array were destroyed, it could cause a massive explosion that would also destroy Utopia colony. Archer took a team into Paxton's facility on a mission to regain control of the array, but when it appeared that they would not succeed in time, Samuels attempted to order Hoshi Sato, who had been placed in command of Enterprise, to destroy the array, but this proved unnecessary, as Archer was able to take control at the last second.
After the crisis with Terra Prime was averted, Samuels assembled the delegates once again and turned the floor over to Archer, who made an impassioned plea with them to not abandon the Coalition. Archer was successful, and negotiations for the alliance went forward. (ENT: "Terra Prime")
In the Star Trek: Enterprise novels, Samuels was established as the United Earth Prime Minister.