It was a large, barren planet, and was the site of the human Genome Colony on the southern continent. The colonists settled the planet in the 22nd century, having lived there two hundred years by 2368.
The planet itself was entirely deserted and only the biosphere constructed for the colony allowed for Human settlement. The biosphere, which was built to withstand the harsh environment of the planet, had defensive shields that could increase in strength and had built with materials that could resist earthquakes up to 8.7 on the Richter scale. In the biosphere, the environment was lush and beautiful as well as meticulously maintained. In the 24th century, the colony had several thousand colonists.
The colonists wished to avoid interacting with outsiders. As a result, for the first two centuries of the colony's existence, the Federation was not aware of their existence, and the colonists barely aware of what was beyond their planet. The colonists were also limited in their technology, compared to other Humans, using obsolete subspace relays and being completely unaware of transporter technology.
In 2368, a stellar core fragment from a collapsed neutron star passed through the sector where Moab IV is located. The passing fragment, which had a density of one hundred billion kilograms per cubic centimeter, posed a serious threat to the colony. Its mass would create large earthquakes, far beyond what the colony was designed to withstand. Because of this unique danger, the isolationist colony made a one-time exception to their policy against outside contact and accepted assistance from the USS Enterprise-D. (TNG: "The Masterpiece Society")
In 2368, the location of Moab IV was labeled on its orbital path around Alpha Moab on a system map that was seen in the laboratory of Hannah Bates on Moab IV. (TNG: "The Masterpiece Society", set artwork)
Background information Edit
According to the script, the pronunciation for Moab was "MOH-ub". 
According to Star Trek: Star Charts ("United Federation of Planets I"), Moab IV (Genome Colony) was listed as a member planet of the Federation in 2378. The author, Geoffrey Mandel, incorrectly listed this planet as Moab VI.