The Mediterranean was a sea on Earth, connected to the Atlantic Ocean, and surrounded by southern Europe, northern Africa and western Asia.

The aliens who portrayed themselves as the Greek gods settled around the Mediterranean, specifically in what would later be known as Greece, during the 28th century BC. (TOS: "Who Mourns for Adonais?")

In the novelization of Star Trek: The Motion Picture a political unit located in the region, known as the "Mediterranean Alliance", encompassed at least one former nation-state, Gibraltar, during the 2270s. Admiral Kirk was contacted by Starfleet during an excursion to Gibraltar, which is noted to be a member of this alliance.

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