The planet had a mass of 5.972 × 1024 kg and an O2/N2 atmosphere. Its surface was dominated by vast savannas and deserts with little surface water. It was inhabited by isolated pockets of Kolarans, an early industrial humanoid civilization.
In 2379, Shinzon planted the parts of the Soong-type android B-4 on Kolarus III as part of his plan to capture Jean-Luc Picard. The positronic emissions from B-4 drew the attention of the USS Enterprise-E, the first Federation starship to visit the planet. An Enterprise away team collected the parts, though they came under fire from the Kolarans. Their presence at Kolarus III meant that the Enterprise was the closest ship to Romulus when Shinzon made a peace overture to the Federation. (Star Trek Nemesis)