(written from a Production point of view)
Isaac Asimov (2 January 1920 – 6 April 1992; age 72), born Isaak Yudovich Ozimov, was a noted science fiction author and a well-respected voice within the scientific community and was an outspoken supporter of cybernetics and creator of the "Three Laws of Robotics," intended to protect Humans from androids, or 'robots' as they were called then. As stated in "Datalore", he did in fact coin the term "positronic brain". He was also a good friend of Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry and scientific adviser for Star Trek: The Motion Picture.
Asimov had first seen Star Trek on the annual World Science Fiction Convention in Cleveland, Ohio, in early-September 1966 when Roddenberry screened "Where No Man Has Gone Before" to the audience.  His collaboration with the series began with an article he wrote for TV Guide in December the same year, in which he criticized the series for its scientific inaccuracy. Roddenberry wrote a letter to Asimov, explaining how hard they tried to keep the show remaining in the realm of serious science fiction, which made him change his opinion, and became a loud supporter of Star Trek. He and Roddenberry soon became friends and often shared letters in which Asimov gave advice concerning the series. (Inside Star Trek: The Real Story) Asimov also attended the first Star Trek convention in 1972. (The Star Trek Compendium)
In July 1987 Roddenberry wrote a letter to both Asimov and Arthur C. Clarke asking the two noted authors to support his negative opinion on the story outline of Star Trek V: The Final Frontier against producer Harve Bennett and star-director-co-writer William Shatner. Asimov replied with a supporting letter to Roddenberry, sharing his views on the un-scientific "the center of the Galaxy" concept and the "un-Trek-like" notion of the crew falling in for a charismatic preacher. 
On the subject of his birthdate, he said in In Memory Yet Green, "The date of my birth, as I celebrate it, was January 2, 1920. It could not have been later than that. It might, however, have been earlier. Allowing for the uncertainties of the times, of the lack of records, of the Jewish and Julian calendars, it might have been as early as October 4, 1919. There is, however, no way of finding out. My parents were always uncertain and it really doesn't matter. I celebrate January 2, 1920, so let it be."
Captain Amasov was named for him. Within the Star Trek universe, he was named in dialogue in TNG: "Datalore" and in production art seen in DS9: "Far Beyond the Stars". Albert Macklin was based on Asimov.