Inflammation was a biological response to injury which could be caused by various factors.
An inflammation could be treated with an anti-inflammatory. (VOY: "Demon")
Arthritis was also known as joint inflammation. (VOY: "Life Line")
In 2368, Soren suffered from inflammation after getting a mild concussion. (TNG: "The Outcast")
In 2372, Tierna showed signs of severe inflammation in his bronchial tissue due to inhaling noxious gases in a damaged shuttle. (VOY: "Basics, Part I")
In 2373, B'Elanna Torres had a mild inflammation of the occipital tissues causing a headache, so The Doctor gave her a mild analgesic. (VOY: "The Swarm")
In 2378, Seven of Nine had a minor inflammation around her biradial clamp. (VOY: "Endgame")