Hodos was something individuals could be said to derive from or belong to.

A merchant and captain named Bathar, encountered by members of USS Voyager's crew, was of Hodos. (VOY: "Memorial")

Hodos could be anything, a city, a planet, a species, or maybe a family. It was never stated exactly what it was.
The Star Trek Encyclopedia (4th ed., vol. 1, p. 339) identified Hodos as a Delta Quadrant planet.
According to the Star Trek: Star Charts (p. 93), Hodos was a star system in the Delta Quadrant. The system's primary was a B-class star.