(covers information from several alternate timelines)
A fracture (or bone fracture) is a medical condition in which there is a damage in the continuity of the bone. Fractures could either be referred to in terms of the specific bone damaged or the general body part affected.
In 2258 of the alternate reality, Khan Noonien Singh explained that he had been revived by Admiral Alexander Marcus so that both his intellect and savagery could be exploited. Pointing to Spock, he questioned how Spock (and therefore Starfleet) could break bones if they couldn't even break rules. (Star Trek Into Darkness)
In 2269, Hikaru Sulu suffered a compound fracture of his leg after being shrunk down to a small size and then falling from a console. He was treated for his injury by Doctor Leonard McCoy and Nurse Christine Chapel of the USS Enterprise. (TAS: "The Terratin Incident")
In 2344, Captain Rachel Garrett of the USS Enterprise-C was treated for serious injuries and a bad fracture after her vessel intervened in a Romulan attack on the Klingon outpost of Narendra III. During the attack, her vessel entered a temporal rift and was sent to an alternate version of 2366, where Captain Garrett's fracture was treated by Doctor Beverly Crusher of the USS Enterprise-D. (TNG: "Yesterday's Enterprise")
In 2369 Doctor Beverly Crusher treated Ishara Yar for a fracture. (TNG: "Legacy") Later that year, Captain Jean-Luc Picard of the USS Enterprise-D suffered a fracture of the arm following a shuttlecraft crash on Lambda Paz, a desert moon of Pentarus III. (TNG: "Final Mission")
In 2374, The Doctor, the EMH of the USS Voyager treated a female crewmember for a fractured vertebrae after she was injured Hirogen hunters who had taken over the vessel and forced the crew to be prey in various holodeck simulation. (VOY: "The Killing Game")