(covers information from several alternate timelines)
A crash landing was an emergency maneuver that was performed when there was insufficient time to land the ship or craft properly, or when the starship lacked the ability to land. Crash landings were often caused when the vessel was sent hurtling into a planet's atmosphere either too fast or with no control by the helmsman.
In 1967, the Federation timeship Aeon crash-landed in the High Sierras on Earth, near Henry Starling's campsite. Captain Braxton was able to initiate an emergency beam out before the vessel's crash. (VOY: "Future's End")
In 2371, the USS Enterprise-D was forced to crash its saucer on Veridian III after it was caught in the shock wave of the exploding stardrive section. At the helm, Deanna Troi had no control over the crash, but the descent of the ship was leveled somewhat by Data rerouting power to the lateral thrusters. (Star Trek Generations)
In 2374, the Jem'Hadar fighter captured on Torga IV was used in covert mission to destroy a ketracel-white storage facility. Captain Sisko and his crew successfully completed the mission, but the captured ship was badly damaged in the explosion, disabling the warp drive. Three days later, the ship was attacked by Jem'Hadar forces and completely disabled. Drifting out of control, the captured ship crash-landed in the ocean on an unknown class M planet. The crew survived and were able to escape the wreck and swim ashore before the ship sank. (DS9: "Rocks and Shoals")
In an alternate timeline, USS Voyager was forced to crash on a class L planet after being thrown out of slipstream. The vessel would have broken up if they had not attempted to land, but the vessel came in too fast and crashed violently on the planet's surface, destroying one of the nacelles and killing all hands but Harry Kim and Commander Chakotay, who were on the Delta Flyer. This timeline was averted by the future Kim when he sent course corrections to Seven of Nine, which collapsed the slipstream, saving the crew. (VOY: "Timeless")