Fasting was a period during which one gave up food and usually most beverages other than water. It was often done (in many cases for religious reasons) to remind oneself of how fortunate one was.
In 2268, Garth of Izar explained to James T. Kirk and Spock that Governor Cory would not be eating with them, explaining he was fasting. (TOS: "Whom Gods Destroy")
The Bajoran Time of Cleansing was a month-long occasion in the Bajoran religion during which the people of Bajor fasted. (DS9: "Bar Association")
Additionally, Bajorans fasted to commemorate Ha'mara, or the arrival of the Emissary of the Prophets (Benjamin Sisko). (DS9: "Starship Down")
In Klingon mating rituals, before his wedding, the groom went on the road to Kal'Hyah, a period of fasting and rigorous physical challenges, with his closest friends. (DS9: "You Are Cordially Invited")
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