The exoscalpel was a precision surgical instrument, and the medical version of a laser scalpel. It employed laser beams to make an incision in skin or other tissue. After completion of surgery, a dermal regenerator could be used to repair the cut tissue.
Exoscalpels have been seen in a wide variety of sizes and configurations. The exoscalpel prop depicted has been used in a variety of different applications, such as that of a scanner device in TNG: "The Host".