Deep Space 9, originally known as Terok Nor, was one of the most historically, politically, and strategically important space stations in the Alpha Quadrant during the latter half of the 24th century. The space station was constructed by the Cardassians in orbit of Bajor during their occupation of the planet. Under Federation administration, following the Cardassian withdrawal, the station was relocated into the Bajoran system's Denorios belt. There DS9 became a vital commercial port and defensive outpost due to its location near the mouth of the Bajoran wormhole. It later became a key strategic location during the Dominion War, for both the Dominion and the Federation Alliance.
Terok Nor Edit
Terok Nor was the station's original Cardassian designation. (DS9: "Cardassians", "A Time to Stand", "Wrongs Darker Than Death or Night") Built by Bajoran slave labor during the Occupation of Bajor under the leadership of the Cardassian Union between 2346 and 2351, its original purpose was to serve as a refinery for uridium ore that was mined from Bajor's surface, a process carried out in temperatures as high as 55° Celsius. (DS9: "Babel", "Wrongs Darker Than Death or Night", "Civil Defense") Therefore, Terok Nor had extensive ore refining and transport facilities that occupied the large docking pylon structures and was built to accommodate up to seven thousand humanoid-sized people as well as process up to twenty thousand tons of ore a day. (DS9: "Sanctuary", "Civil Defense", "Things Past") The station also served as a command post from which the Cardassian Prefect of Bajor, most notably Gul Dukat, oversaw the military aspects of the Occupation. In one of his recorded messages for the counter-insurgency program installed on the station, Dukat described Terok Nor as being "a paradise" compared to Bajor. (DS9: "Civil Defense") Like the planet it orbited, the station operated on a twenty-six hour day. (DS9: "A Man Alone")
In 2365, Gul Dukat took the unusual step of appointing a non-Cardassian as the chief of security aboard Terok Nor. Odo, a shapeshifter discovered on a derelict ship near Bajor some years before, had ties to both the Cardassians and the Bajorans on the station. (DS9: "Necessary Evil", "Tribunal")
In 2369, the Cardassians decided to withdraw from Bajor after fifty years of occupation. Unable to move the station across interstellar distances, they left the outpost in its high orbit. Before departing, however, Cardassian soldiers rampaged across the station, removing or destroying a large portion of the station's equipment and killing several shop owners. (DS9: "Emissary")
Deep Space 9 Edit
The Federation Edit
Following the Cardassian withdrawal, the Bajoran Provisional Government petitioned for Federation membership, and also for Starfleet assistance in repairing and maintaining Terok Nor. A complex arrangement was established, in which a Starfleet officer would have overall authority in running the station, while the station remained sovereign Bajoran territory. A representative of the Bajoran Militia would serve as the station's first officer and as liaison to the Bajoran government. The station was renamed "Deep Space 9", and Benjamin Sisko was appointed as commander, at Admiral Leyton's recommendation. (DS9: "Emissary", "Homefront")
As station commander, one of the most important facets of the station Sisko sought to develop was commerce. The Cardassians had allowed a small series of businesses and entertainment facilities to operate in the central, multi-level market area called the Promenade. Because almost all of the shops were owned by non-Bajorans, Sisko hoped to convince many of them to stay to help build a trade network through Bajoran space. In particular, Sisko convinced Quark, owner of Quark's, the largest establishment on the Promenade, to maintain his business on-station as an example for others, as well as to become a community leader and eventually chairman of the Promenade Merchants' Association. (DS9: "Emissary", "Call to Arms")
The station quickly became an important facility for Starfleet. Over time, several starships docked at the station for various reasons. The USS Enterprise-D was the first Starfleet ship to dock at the station in 2369, when it transported the majority of the station's Starfleet crew to take up their posts. The Enterprise also offloaded three runabouts. (DS9: "Emissary") The Enterprise returned to DS9 several weeks later to help repair the Bajoran aqueduct systems that had been damaged during the Occupation. (TNG: "Birthright, Part I") The USS Voyager docked at Deep Space 9 in 2371 on its way to the Badlands to search for the Maquis ship Val Jean. It was the last Alpha Quadrant locale the crew of Voyager visited before being transported to the Delta Quadrant by the Caretaker. (VOY: "Caretaker") Five years later, the station helped Starfleet Command to contact Voyager in the Delta Quadrant by providing interstellar phenomena forecasts. (VOY: "Pathfinder")
Discovering the wormhole Edit
Only days after the Federation took control of the station, a momentous discovery changed DS9's purpose forever. With encouragement from Kai Opaka, Sisko and his science officer, Lieutenant Jadzia Dax, searched for the mythical Celestial Temple of the Prophets, hoping to find a cause or idea to help unify the Bajoran people. While aboard the runabout USS Rio Grande, Sisko and Dax found the only known stable wormhole in the Milky Way Galaxy, which crossed over seventy thousand light years from Bajor in the Alpha Quadrant to a point near the Idran system in the Gamma Quadrant. (DS9: "Emissary")
The presence of a stable wormhole inside the Bajoran system had an enormous impact on commerce throughout the region, making the system one of the most important locations in the entire Alpha Quadrant – a fact recognized by the Bajorans, the Federation, and the Cardassians. Major Kira Nerys, DS9's first officer, ordered the station moved to the mouth of the wormhole in order to cement Bajor's claim. Despite the massive forces and pressures involved in moving the station with only six working thrusters, Chief of Station Operations Miles O'Brien devised a risky method by which the deflector shields were altered to lower the station's inertial mass to a level sufficient for movement at the speeds necessary to reach the wormhole. The station was positioned close to the mouth of the wormhole, approximately a thousand kilometers from its event horizon. (DS9: "Emissary")
However, the Cardassians had not completely abandoned the system, maintaining surveillance of activities in the region; they quickly found out about the wormhole's discovery and attempted to claim the wormhole for themselves. Gul Dukat ordered his warship through the wormhole, and was trapped on the far side when the beings controlling the wormhole collapsed its entrance. A short time later, three additional Galor-class warships, under the command of Gul Jasad of the Seventh Order, approached the station. Following a brief armed standoff, the wormhole reappeared, and the ships returned, with the Rio Grande towing Dukat's warship. With a firm Bajoran-Federation claim established on the wormhole, the Cardassians withdrew. (DS9: "Emissary")
The impact the wormhole had on the station was enormous. Rather than a minor orbital servicing station and transfer point, DS9 had the potential to become one of the top commerce stations in the entire quadrant, and one of Starfleet's most important outposts. Eager to explore the vast new territories of the Gamma Quadrant, dozens of races established trading relations with Bajor and began sending starships through the wormhole. At the same time, DS9 became the first point of contact in the Alpha Quadrant for any native species traveling from the Gamma Quadrant. Within the first two years, ships operating from or passing through DS9 made contact with at least twelve different cultures, including the Dosi, the Karemma, the Skrreeans, the Hunters and the Tosk, the Rakhari, the Wadi, and the Paradans. (DS9: "Rules of Acquisition", "The Search, Part I", "Sanctuary", "Captive Pursuit", "Vortex", "Move Along Home", "Whispers")
Bajoran affairs Edit
Deep Space 9 was also a unique place for the constant contact and cooperation between people from Bajor and the Federation, and therefore also became a point of tension at times. In late 2369, DS9 became the center of a controversy between Bajoran religious fundamentalists, instigated by then-Vedek Winn Adami, and pro-Federation factions. The incident brought attention to the fierce contest to elect a new Kai following the disappearance and apparent death of Kai Opaka earlier that year. (DS9: "Battle Lines") Winn protested the ideas taught in DS9's school by volunteer teacher Keiko O'Brien about the wormhole, creating a rift between some conservative Bajorans and the secular Federation representatives. (DS9: "In the Hands of the Prophets")
In early 2370, an extremist faction known as the Alliance for Global Unity, also known simply as "The Circle", began an uprising against the Bajoran provisional government. During this coup, the station became a target of the insurgents as the Circle attempted to force all non-Bajoran influences to leave. All Federation and civilian personnel were ordered to evacuate the station, but Commander Sisko chose to remain behind with a group of volunteers, hoping to prevent the Circle's takeover. A division of the Bajoran Militia working under the direction of Minister Jaro Essa, the leader of the Circle, boarded the station and assumed control. General Krim and Colonel Day, commanding the force, engaged in a cat-and-mouse game with the small Starfleet contingent for two days. Evidence was eventually revealed to the Chamber of Ministers that the Cardassians were secretly arming the Circle, using the Kressari as intermediaries. With this damning revelation, the Circle's rebellion collapsed, and Krim returned control of the station to Sisko. (DS9: "The Homecoming", "The Circle", "The Siege")
In later years, there were occasional flare-ups where Bajoran and Federation interests clashed, but none were nearly as explosive. Over time, almost all resistance to Federation influence on DS9 and on Bajor disappeared as Starfleet continued to prove its good intentions. In addition, the increasingly prominent role of Sisko as the Emissary of the Prophets, a major figure in Bajoran religion, helped build acceptance for his position as station commander. (DS9: "Life Support", "Destiny", "Accession", "Rapture")
The Maquis Edit
In 2370, the Cardassian freighter Bok'Nor inexplicably exploded immediately after undocking from DS9. A previously-unknown group in the Cardassian Demilitarized Zone, calling themselves the Maquis, claimed responsibility. The Maquis were dispossessed Federation citizens resisting the cession of their home colonies to Cardassian control, and were arming themselves with mostly Federation contraband weaponry. A short time later, the Maquis also kidnapped Gul Dukat from the station while aboard for consultations with Commander Sisko regarding the situation in the DMZ. (DS9: "The Maquis, Part I")
Although DS9 was not located in the DMZ itself, the Bajoran system's proximity to that area made the station a major target for related operations on occasion. Most notably, in 2372 the Maquis hijacked a shipment of twelve Federation industrial replicators which were being sent to Cardassia to provide relief in the wake of the Klingon-Cardassian War. Michael Eddington, the senior Starfleet Security officer aboard DS9, publicly defected to the Maquis in this incident, and later went on to unify the various Maquis cells under his leadership. (DS9: "For the Cause")
The Klingon threat Edit
Starting in 2372, DS9 had to face a new threat in the form of the Klingon Empire. A Klingon fleet led by the Klingon flagship IKS Negh'Var arrived at the station, with the stated intent of protecting the station against the Dominion. However, the station's crew discovered that the Klingons were actually preparing for an all-out attack against the Cardassian Union. After the start of this war, the Cardassian Detapa Council was evacuated to the station, Klingon ships attacked the station, but eventually withdrew. (DS9: "The Way of the Warrior")
Throughout 2372 the Klingon presence continued to be a potential threat for the station and the surrounding area of space, including a Klingon attempt to mine the Bajoran system. (DS9: "Sons of Mogh")
When war between the Federation and the Klingon Empire finally erupted the station served as a base for Starfleet forces in the area. (DS9: "Apocalypse Rising") The situation was finally resolved when the Khitomer Accords were reinstated in mid-2373 and a permanent Klingon military presence, commanded by General Martok, was stationed aboard DS9. (DS9: "By Inferno's Light")
The Dominion Edit
Deep Space 9's greatest fame, however, came in its role of defending the Federation and the Alpha Quadrant from Dominion invasion. Around stardate 47950, Benjamin Sisko and Quark, while on a camping trip in the Gamma Quadrant with Sisko's son, Jake, and Quark's nephew, Nog, were abducted by the Jem'Hadar, the soldiers of the Dominion. A representative of the Dominion boarded the station and informed the crew that the Dominion would not tolerate "intrusions" into its territory – and intrusions were defined as any vessel that entered the Gamma Quadrant. After the Galaxy-class starship USS Odyssey was destroyed in battle against the Jem'Hadar, DS9 was suddenly placed on the front line of a new interstellar conflict. (DS9: "The Jem'Hadar")
Weeks later, Starfleet assigned the experimental warship USS Defiant to the station to provide an additional line of defense against the Dominion threat. In addition, Commander Sisko launched a crash program to upgrade and expand the station's own tactical systems, adding new, heavier shield generators, more powerful phaser arrays, and a large battery of photon torpedoes. These upgraded weapons actually saw their first use against Klingon warships in their abortive attack on DS9 in early 2372. (DS9: "The Search, Part I", "The Way of the Warrior")
In addition to the threat of invasion by the Jem'Hadar, the Dominion also posed another, more sinister threat – infiltration by Changelings, the Founders of the Dominion. Because these beings could assume any form and avoid detection by almost all normal sensors, the potential damage from espionage and sabotage was enormous. DS9's crew helped pioneer several methods that tried to combat this threat, including phaser sweeps and blood screenings. (DS9: "The Adversary", "The Way of the Warrior", "Homefront")
A rogue group of Jem'Hadar attacked the station in 2372, destroying an upper pylon in the process and stealing several materials, later discovered to be used for the restoration of an Iconian gateway. (DS9: "To the Death")
When the Dominion finally entered the Alpha Quadrant in 2373, the first battle was, surprisingly, not fought at DS9 as anticipated. A large fleet of more than fifty Jem'Hadar warships bypassed the station and moved instead to annex the Cardassian Union – at the invitation of Gul Dukat. DS9 became a marshaling point for both Klingon ships, retreating from their former Cardassian conquests, and for Starfleet, as well as a squadron of Romulan warbirds that joined the fleet. However, the Dominion chose not to launch a direct attack on the station, instead attempting to destroy the Bajoran sun and thus the station. This attempt failed, however, and the fleet dispersed. (DS9: "By Inferno's Light")
After securing the Cardassian territories, the Dominion began sending weekly supply convoys, including dozens of fresh warships, through the wormhole. Without sufficient forces, station personnel could only watch as more and more troops and warships poured into the Alpha Quadrant. As the Dominion also began securing nonaggression pacts with several powers, Captain Sisko, with approval from Starfleet Command, began to blockade the entrance to the wormhole with self-replicating mines. In response, the Dominion launched a massive assault fleet to capture the station and take control of the wormhole.
In the the ensuing battle, DS9 accounted for the destruction of over fifty Jem'Hadar and Cardassian ships. Additionally, the Defiant was successful in completing the minefield, sealing off the wormhole. However, Dukat committed additional ships to mount another assault, and facing overwhelming numbers, Sisko decided to abandon the station. Defending DS9 was additionally a diversion; while the Dominion and Cardassian forces were committed to capturing it, a combined Federation and Klingon attack force destroyed the Dominion shipyards on Torros III. (DS9: "Call to Arms")
When the station was retaken by the Cardassians and their Dominion allies, it reverted back to its original Cardassian designation, Terok Nor, and was once again commanded by Dukat. Although it was officially still owned by the Bajoran government, for all intents and purposes it was once again a Cardassian station. (DS9: "Call to Arms")
The station soon came to be the site from which Dukat, Weyoun and other Dominion personnel directed the Dominion War. However, because the minefield operated independently from the station, Terok Nor played no other important role in the Dominion war effort aside from serving as a command and resupply outpost. A Ruling Council, including Odo, was later formed. (DS9: "A Time to Stand")
Spurred on by the suicide of Vedek Yassim, Kira Nerys formed a resistance group that included herself, Jake Sisko, Rom, and Leeta. They were also assisted by Quark and Tora Ziyal. (DS9: "Rocks and Shoals", "Behind the Lines")
Facing an invasion on several fronts, Starfleet was initially unable to mount a counteroffensive to retake the station for several months. In mid-2374, the allies launched Operation Return, from Starbase 375, aimed at recapturing the station and preserving the minefield. Under the command of Captain Sisko, the allies won a major victory despite heavy losses. At the same time, Kira and Rom attempted to sabotage the antigraviton emitter in order to preserve the minefield. They were unsuccessful, but did disable the station's weapons, leaving it defenseless. Captain Sisko took the Defiant into the wormhole in a desperate last stand against the overwhelming Dominion reinforcements. Sisko was contacted by the Prophets, who agreed to stop the Dominion forces to protect their Emissary. With the reinforcements gone and Federation and Klingon forces on their way, the Dominion abandoned the station. (DS9: "Favor the Bold", "Sacrifice of Angels")
For the remainder of the war, DS9 functioned as a major repair and resupply depot for Starfleet, Klingon, and later, Romulan forces. In addition, the major offenses that culminated in the First Battle of Chin'toka and the Battle of Cardassia were launched from DS9. (DS9: "Tears of the Prophets", "What You Leave Behind")
In 2376, the crew of Deep Space 9 predicted that a pulsar would pass close to the MIDAS array. Lieutenant Reginald Barclay of the Pathfinder Project fired a tachyon beam at the pulsar, resulting in a micro-wormhole which allowed brief contact with the USS Voyager in the Delta Quadrant. (VOY: "Pathfinder")
Alternate timelines Edit
In a future experienced by a time travelling Miles O'Brien, the station was destroyed by a Romulan warbird, who had fired on the station's reactor core. However, due to O'Brien travelling back in time to a point before the attack, this destruction could be avoided. (DS9: "Visionary")
In an alternate timeline, in which Benjamin Sisko was apparently killed in an accident aboard the USS Defiant, DS9 was transferred to Klingon control in 2373 and was still under their control around 2422. (DS9: "The Visitor")
Station layout Edit
- See Terok Nor-type.
Support vessels Edit
Deep Space 9 had a number of support vessels on hand. From 2369 to 2375, sixteen Danube-class runabouts and two Defiant-class starships had been assigned to Deep Space 9 at some point. Several were destroyed or lost.
During the first two years of their service, the runabouts were instrumental in the defense of the station and exploration of the Gamma Quadrant. The runabouts were even responsible, under the command of Commander Sisko and Lieutenant Dax, for the discovery of the Bajoran wormhole.
In 2371, with the threat of the Dominion becoming a concern, Starfleet Command assigned the USS Defiant to Deep Space 9. A few years later, in 2375, the Defiant was destroyed in the Second Battle of Chin'toka. On stardate 52861, Vice Admiral William Ross delivered the USS Sao Paulo to the station, albeit a little late. This caused Captain Sisko to comment that was "...no way to start a relationship." Starfleet Operations also gave Captain Sisko special dispensation to rename the Sao Paulo to Defiant. (DS9: "The Search, Part I", "The Changing Face of Evil", "The Dogs of War")
- USS Defiant – as of 2375
- USS Rio Grande – as of 2375
- USS Rubicon – as of 2374
- USS Volga – as of 2373
- NCC-73918 – as of 2375
- Upper Pylon runabout as of 2374
- Sappora VII runabout as of 2375
- USS Defiant – destroyed in 2375
- USS Gander – destroyed in 2375
- USS Ganges – destroyed in 2370
- USS Mekong – presumed destroyed in 2371
- USS Orinoco – destroyed in 2372
- USS Shenandoah – destroyed in 2374
- USS Yangtzee Kiang – crash-landed in 2369, deemed unrecoverable
- USS Yukon – destroyed in 2373
- Torga IV runabout – destroyed in 2373
- Ajilon Prime runabout – destroyed in 2373
- Empok Nor runabout – destroyed in 2373
Command crew Edit
- Captain Benjamin Sisko – Commanding officer
- Colonel Kira Nerys – First officer/Bajoran liaison officer
- Lieutenant Commander Jadzia Dax – Science officer (2369-2374)
- Lieutenant Commander Michael Eddington – Chief of Starfleet security (2371-2372)
- Lieutenant Commander Worf – Strategic operations officer/Fleet liaison officer/Intelligence officer (2372-2375)
- Lieutenant Julian Bashir – Chief medical officer
- Lieutenant junior grade Ezri Dax – Counselor (2375-)
- Lieutenant junior grade Nog – station maintenance (2373-)
- Senior Chief Petty Officer Miles O'Brien – Chief of operations
- Constable Odo – Security chief
Notable residents Edit
- Elim Garak (tailor) (2369-2375)
- Jake Sisko (son of Benjamin Sisko) (2369-)
- Kasidy Yates (wife of Captain Sisko) (2371-)
- Keiko O'Brien (wife of Chief O'Brien, exobotanist and school teacher) (2369-2375)
- Molly O'Brien (daughter of Chief O'Brien and Keiko O'Brien) (2369-2375)
- Kirayoshi O'Brien (son of Chief O'Brien and Keiko O'Brien) (2373-2375)
- Tora Ziyal (daughter of Dukat) (2372-2374)
- Leeta (dabo girl) (2371-2375)
- Morn (constant customer at Quark's) (2364-)
- Quark (owner of the station's bar, Quark's) (ca. 2363-)
- Rom (Quark's brother) (ca. 2363-2375)
- General/Chancellor Martok (Klingon Empire representative – 2373-2375)
- Sub-Commander T'Rul (Romulan Star Empire representative – 2371)
- Senator Letant (Romulan Star Empire representative – 2374)
- Senator Kimara Cretak (Romulan Star Empire representative – 2375)
- General Velal (Romulan Star Empire representative – 2375)
|Deep Space stations|
|Deep Space Station K-7 • Tau Ceti Deep Space Station • Deep Space 3 • Deep Space 4 • Deep Space 5 • Deep Space 7 • Deep Space 9 • Hubble Deep Space Station|
- Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (All episodes except for):
- TNG: "Birthright, Part I"
- VOY: "Caretaker"
- Star Trek: Insurrection
See also Edit
- Deep Space 9 personnel
- Terok Nor personnel
- Deep Space 9 levels
- Terok Nor (mirror)
- Empok Nor
- Star Trek: Deep Space Nine Technical Manual
- Starships visiting Deep Space 9
Background information Edit
The station's original name, Terok Nor, was first referred to in "Cardassians". According to the scripts for that episode , "The Wire" , "Crossover" , "Civil Defense" , "Destiny" , "Shattered Mirror" , "Call to Arms" , "The Emperor's New Cloak" , the pronunciation for Terok Nor was "TAIR-awk nor". However, for the episode "Tribunal" , the pronunciation was "TEHR-uk NOR". Finally, in the script for "Empok Nor" , the pronunciation for Nor was "NORE".
The scripts of the six-part war arc in season six always referred to DS9 as Terok Nor.
According to Star Trek: Star Charts (p. 43) in 2369, the station moved from a geosynchronous orbit around the planet Bajor to a solar orbit around the star Bajor (B'hava'el) shortly after it was recommissioned as Deep Space 9.
According to the Stellar Cartography: The Starfleet Reference Library ("The Dominion War: Strategy and Battles, 2373-75"), Deep Space 9 was captured by the Dominion on December 23, 2373. The Federation and its allies reclaimed the station, in "Operation: Return", on March 25, 2374.
In book one of the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine - Millennium trilogy, Deep Space 9 is destroyed when a second Celestial Temple (a Pah-wraith wormhole) is opened inside Quark's, beginning a horrific chain of events that sees the near extinction of several of Star Trek's most notable races (specifically, the Klingons, Cardassians, and Humans), along with the destruction of Earth, the USS Enterprise-E, the Federation, and the universe itself. However, the timeline is repaired thanks to Benjamin Sisko and the crew of Deep Space 9, who manage to disrupt the formation of the second wormhole by causing a Cardassian ship from the present to collide with a Klingon ship from that alternate future while inside the red wormhole, resulting in the wormhole being disrupted while DS9 and the temporally-relocated Defiant exit from the traditional wormhole.
In Star Trek: Legacy, Deep Space 9 appeared in one mission, during a Borg invasion of the Bajoran system. In the game, Deep Space 9 was seen orbiting Bajor like it did in DS9: "Emissary", possibly suggesting that the station moved back to Bajor after the Dominion War from the Bajoran wormhole.
During the events of Plagues of Night the station is destroyed by a series of bombs placed around the various reactor cores. The perpetrator was initially unknown, but was eventually revealed to be an Andorian officer working with the Typhon Pact, although it is specified that the explosive force was miscalculated and the bombs were only ever intended to be a distraction while the Pact's forces tried to use the wormhole in secret rather than actually destroy the station. Those on the station at the time of its destruction included Kira Nerys, Kasidy Yates-Sisko, and Ro Laren. It was established in Raise the Dawn that the station was lost, although only around a thousand people died out of the over six thousand present on the station at the time, none of them major characters, and Starfleet Command would build a replacement station (β) with the same name based on Federation designs. The new DS9 debuts two years later in Star Trek: The Fall: Revelation and Dust.
In Star Trek Online, Deep Space Nine appears as a main hub for players to interact at by the Bajoran Sector. It is one of two social hubs in the game where the two opposite factions, the Klingons and the Federation, can interact without combat. Deep Space Nine also serves as a Hub for Endgame play for the game. The station is now commanded by Captain James Kurland, with Commander Karen Andrews as first officer and the Klingon representative and Omega Force leader being Admiral D'Vak, son of Alexander Rozhenko.
- Deep Space 9 at StarTrek.com, the official Star Trek website
- Deep Space 9 at Memory Beta, the wiki for licensed Star Trek works
- Deep Space 9 (II) at Memory Beta, the wiki for licensed Star Trek works
- Terok Nor at Memory Beta, the wiki for licensed Star Trek works
- Deep Space Nine (space station) at Wikipedia
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