(covers information from several alternate timelines)
This page contains information regarding new Star Trek material, and thus may contain spoilers.
A data chip was a type of storage medium. Data chips were used by Skagarans in the 19th century and by the Vulcans in the 22nd century. In the mirror universe at least, Vulcans continued using data chips into the mid-23rd century. (ENT: "North Star", "Stigma"; DIS: "Despite Yourself")
In 2152, Doctor Yuris gave Sub-Commander T'Pol a container full of data chips on which was research concerning Pa'nar Syndrome. The research had been requested by Dr. Phlox and Yuris handed it over to T'Pol in hopes that it might be of some use to T'Pol, as she was suffering from the illness. T'Pol was extremely grateful for the data chips, believing Yuris had taken a big risk by passing them onto her. When Phlox later analyzed the chips, however, he discovered that, though the research was far from a cure, it seemed very helpful and would probably help Phlox slow the progression of the disease and come closer to developing a cure for the syndrome than the Vulcans had. (ENT: "Stigma")
T'Pol and Commander Charles Tucker III later recovered some crystal-like Skagaran data chips from a data module in a crashed Skagaran starship. After showing Captain Jonathan Archer the data chips, Tucker and T'Pol – in an effort to salvage data from them – took the data chips back to Enterprise NX-01, where they tried to interpret the data. Several other data modules were also used. (ENT: "North Star")