There is very little known about the Cardassian language, other than its proper nouns (see Cardassians and Cardassia for names of people and places respectively).
Cardassian writing is composed of slender rectangular letters usually widening at the top. Lines of text are written both horizontally and vertically, radiating out from an elaborate circle motif. Lines of text also incorporate dots. (TNG: "Chain of Command, Part II"; DS9: "Tribunal", "Things Past")
Cardassian military uniforms include a section of writing in gold on the right chest. It is unknown what this writing means, though by the placement, it may be conjectured that it is the name of the wearer, or of the vessel or unit to which they are assigned, or possibly the Cardassian equivalent of rank insignia. The Cardassian script was designed by Doug Drexler.(Star Trek - Where No One Has Gone Before, p.169)
The Detapa Council is the highest civilian government body, although we are never given a clue as to what the word "Detapa" means. However it could mean civilian or be the name of the location the Council was first constituted. (DS9: "The Way of the Warrior")