Australia was an island country and a continent on Earth. The capital was Canberra. Its official language was English. People from Australia were known as Australians. Indigenous inhabitants of the continent were known as Australian Aborigines.
In the 17th century, Australia was known to Europeans as "Nova Hollandia" ("New Holland"). In a contemporaneous map, this continent was depicted on a map of the Indian Ocean region. (Star Trek: Enterprise, opening credits)
When Hoshi Sato was twelve, she had a female pen pal from Brisbane, Australia. At the time, she loved getting letters from her, noting that "it was like this little window into distant places with strange-sounding names." (ENT: "Dear Doctor")
Starfleet officers are known to have survival training in the outback of Australia, where they learn to survive drinking recycled sweat and eating snake meat. Trip Tucker and Jonathan Archer once spent two weeks in Australia for their survival training during the 2140s. (ENT: "Desert Crossing") A.G. Robinson also underwent survival training in Australia. (ENT: "First Flight")
In Kathryn Janeway's first year at Starfleet Academy in the 24th century, she went through zero-g training in the Coral Sea, a body of water off the coast of Australia in the Pacific Ocean. (VOY: "Good Shepherd")
A 21st century-era political map of Earth was stored in the USS Enterprise's library computer in 2254. The Australian continent was seen on this map. This map was among the materials viewed by the Talosians when they scanned the Enterprise computer. (TOS-R: "The Cage")
When Lily Sloane claimed for a way out of the USS Enterprise-E Jean-Luc Picard told her it would be difficult. He opened a hatch to space and showed Lily Earth, pointing at Australia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomons. (Star Trek: First Contact)
In an illusion created by the telepathic pitcher plant in 2375, where the USS Voyager crew had discovered a wormhole to Earth, Lieutenant Tom Paris was offered a position as a pilot at a new test flight center in Australia. (VOY: "Bliss")
- USS Melbourne, named after Australia's second-largest city (which in turn was named after Lord Melbourne)
- Sydney-class and New Sydney, named after Australia's largest city (which in turn was named after Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney)
- USS Jenolan, named after the Jenolan Caves located in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales
- SS Botany Bay, named after the historic penal colony at Botany Bay
|Continents of Earth|
|Africa • Asia • Antarctica • Australia • Europe • North America • South America|
In The Big Good-Bye, one of the females who called the master criminal Silent Forrester at the Plaza lived at the Allcroft. The cops who interrogated her believed that she was from Australia and was born in England. She worked in a bank. (TNG: "The Big Goodbye")
Background information Edit
The 17th century map, known as "Harmonia macrocosmica seu atlas universalis et novus, totius universi creati cosmographiam generalem, et novam exhibens", was created by Andreas Cellarius.A scan of the original can be found here
Retroactive continuity: A 20th-century era map of the eastern hemisphere depicting the location of Australia was stored in the USS Enterprise's library computer in 2254. This map was among the materials viewed by the Talosians when they scanned the Enterprise computer. (TOS-R: "The Cage")
It was a common belief that Australia was the last state to join the United Earth Government in 2150, but Australia holding out was only used by Beverly Crusher as a hypothetical example when discussing the eligibility of the fractured planet Kesprytt with Jean-Luc Picard in "Attached".
The map used in the remastered "The Cage" was a Central Intelligence Agency map published either in April 2007  or September 2008 . The difference, which was not noticeable at the resolution of the image from the episode, was the addition of Kosovo, which gained its independence between the releases. According to the map, the Australian capital was Canberra. Major cities in this continent were Adelaide, Alice Springs, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, Newcastle, Perth, Sydney, and Wollongong.