Arteriosclerosis was a condition relating to the hardening of a humanoid's arteries.
In 2267, Dr. Leonard McCoy performed an intensive scan on the natives of Gamma Trianguli VI and surprisingly found no indications of many aging conditions, like decalcification and arteriosclerosis. (TOS: "The Apple")
In 2372, Joseph Sisko's doctor diagnosed him with progressive arteriosclerosis. His son, Captain Benjamin Sisko only discovered this by talking to Joseph's doctor while he was visiting Earth. The doctor ordered Joseph to undergo vascular regeneration therapy. Without doing the therapy, Joseph could possibly have died from his condition. (DS9: "Homefront")