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Since they had an appreciation for Shakespeare, a popular version of Macbeth was re-envisioned by the Arcturians. Sponsored by the Galactic Cultural Exchange Project, this rendition was notably performed by the Karidian Company of Players, a touring theatrical troupe headed by Anton Karidian, in 2266. (TOS: "The Conscience of the King")
An Arcturian Starfleet officer was speaking with two Vegans at Starfleet Headquarters air tram station in San Francisco on stardate 7410.2. The three were on a lower platform (in the background) when James T. Kirk and Sonak parted ways at the top of a flight of stairs. (Star Trek: The Motion Picture)
"A massive militaristic society, the Arcturians are the race which provides the infantry for the Federation. Their home planet is enormous and likewise their population – over 100 billion strong at last count. Therefore, producing an army of 20 billion overnight is a snap for them. There is, however, one problem. Since all Arcturians are produced by cloning they all look alike. They have overcome this problem easily by using a color coded designation for regiment and rank. But woe to the poor Federation general who suffers from color blindness."  
In an interview appearing in the March 1980 edition of Fantastic Films, part two of "The Star Trek Costumes", Fletcher revealed more information about the Arcturians and the design of their costumes, explaining:
"Only one society was militaristic in our sense of the word. That was the Arcturians, the cloned people who all looked alike. The only way to tell them apart was the coloring of their uniforms. For them we created costumes of leather and linen and originally I wanted woven metal tubes for metal rope decorations. Bob found this material in an obsolete plumbing/hardware store. It was to be silver-plated into a bandolier and also used for decorations on the shoulders and elbows denoting rank and regiment. It didn't quite work out so you'll see very little of it in the film, toned down quite a bit. Also, we even created a small briefcase made of plastic, something like the pilots carry today."
A 1979 documentary, The Making of Star Trek: The Motion Picture, confirmed the militaristic intent for the Arcturians, where it was specifically mentioned that they provided the "infantry for the Federation", and which was reaffirmed decades later in an article appearing in the January 2002 edition of Star Trek: The Magazine Volume 2, Issue 9, entitled "Who is that Alien?", which stated:
"A race of clones from the densely populated Arcturas [sic]. Fred Phillips and Robert Fletcher speculated that they provided the backbone of the Federation infantry – not least because, if needed, they could clone billions of new soldiers overnight."
According to Star Trek: Star Charts (United Federation of Planets I), Arcturus, also known as Alpha Bootis, was the name of a star in the Alpha Quadrant. The primary was a class K star. The magnitude of this star was -3, which was 1,000 times brighter than Sol. Arcturus was also the name of a planet in the system and had, by 2378, become a member of the Federation.
Arcturians also occasionally appeared in the Star Trek newspaper comic strip.