Arctic One was the designation for an United Earth Arctic One-type transport that was in service in the mid-22nd century. In 2153, this starship was assigned to the A-6 excavation team, an Arctic Archaeology Team, a branch of the Earth Sciences Institute, for an exploration of Earth's Arctic Circle.
During their exploration of the Arctic Circle, the team discovered a craft of unknown origin. As they investigated the crashed vehicle and its crew, later identified as Borg drones, the members of the team were assimilated along with their ship into the Borg Collective. The new drones then attempted a journey in the Arctic One to the Collective's territory in the distant Delta Quadrant.
En route, the ship was intercepted and destroyed by Enterprise NX-01 using four spatial torpedoes and a phaser blast; however, before Arctic One's destruction, the drones successfully transmitted a subspace message to the Borg, alerting them to Earth's location. (ENT: "Regeneration")