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(covers information from several alternate timelines)
An antimatter explosion could be caused by a breach of a matter/antimatter reactor, or antimatter pod. This loss of containment resulted in an interaction with matter that annihilated both substances and converted them into large quantities of energy in a short amount of time. Antimatter explosions were a serious hazard for vessels powered by matter/antimatter reactors.
In 2258 of the alternate reality, the USS Enterprise was being sucked into a black hole. Montgomery Scott chose to eject the ship's warp cores into the singularity, causing a massive antimatter explosion that safely swept the ship away. (Star Trek)
At some point after 2248, and decades before 2370s, Otrin's species learned of antimatter technology from the Human probe Friendship 1, launched in Earth year 2067. Their early experiments with antimatter particles resulted in a massive antimatter explosion, which rendered their homeworld virtually uninhabitable after experiencing a nuclear winter. In 2378, the USS Voyager neutralized the antimatter radiation, restoring the planet's atmosphere to normal levels. (VOY: "Friendship One")