Advanced genetics was an academic discipline, dealing with advanced forms of genetics.
In 2366, Wesley Crusher worked on nanotechnology as his final school project in advanced genetics. He studied nanites with the theory that by working together, they could combine their skills and increase their usefulness. However, his science experiment got out of hand when two nanites escaped their confinement in the science lab and began replicating on the USS Enterprise-D. The replicated nanites became intelligent and were the cause of several systems malfunctions all over the ship. (TNG: "Evolution")