The Acts of Cumberland were statutes pertaining to the rights of devices possessing artificial intelligence which were passed in the early 21st century.
Based on them, Phillipa Louvois ruled in 2365 that Data was the property of Starfleet and could not resign from it or refuse being disassembled by Bruce Maddox. However, this ruling was succesfully challenged by Jean-Luc Picard. (TNG: "The Measure Of A Man")
It is unclear what political body enacted the Acts of Cumberland but they still had force as precedents in the 24th century.