The 17th century is defined by the calendar of Earth as occurring from the year 1601 through the year 1700.
- Flint meets the Earth astronomer Galileo Galilei. (TOS: "Requiem for Methuselah") During his lifetime, Galileo proves that the Earth is not the center of the universe. As a result, religious authorities make him renounce his support for those claims on the premise of a death sentence for disobedience. (DS9: "In the Hands of the Prophets")
- The Spanish set out to expel all non-Christians from Spain in what was known as the Spanish Inquisition. (Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home; DS9: "Q-Less")
- The Marlonian 2nd century occurs. This is when the Marlonian cookware found by Jean-Luc Picard originated. (TNG: "Rascals"
- Posthumous publication of the "first folio" by William Shakespeare on Earth. (TOS: "Requiem for Methuselah")
- A man named Ronin is born in Glasgow, on Earth. He becomes infused with an anaphasic lifeform, effectively granting him eternal youth. (TNG: "Sub Rosa")
- The Lucasian Chair of Mathematics is created at Cambridge University. (TNG: "All Good Things...")
- Human mathematician Pierre de Fermat dies, leaving behind a note claiming to have discovered "remarkable proof" for what becomes known as Fermat's last theorem. (TNG: "The Royale"; DS9: "Facets")
- Human scientist Isaac Newton devises three laws of motion that form the basis of Earth's understanding of physics and the universe. Newton's epiphany comes when a member of the Q Continuum, later named Quinn, jostles the apple tree that Newton is sitting under, causing an apple to fall on Newton's head. (VOY: "Death Wish")
- The Spanish serve as the overlords of several American Indian tribes in the region later known as New Mexico. These Indian pueblos rise up against the Spanish and drive them out of the region, in what was known as the Pueblo Revolt. (TNG: "Journey's End")
- The inhabitants of Megas-Tu are forced to leave their homes in Salem, Massachusetts, on Earth, following the Salem witch trials. (TAS: "The Magicks of Megas-Tu")
- The Spanish return and brutally reconquer the area they were driven out from in 1680 by American Indians, killing several hundred of them and maiming several thousand more. Javier Maribona-Picard, an ancestor of Jean-Luc Picard, is one of the Spanish soldiers in this campaign. (TNG: "Journey's End")
|16th century||Timeline||18th century|